To whom does Transylvania belong?

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An interesting conflict which involved Romanians from actual Petriș village and the Saxons(Germans) from actual Satu Nou (New Village) took place in 1366. The conflict is about the ownership of a forest. The most important thing to note is that king Ludovic I (1342 – 1382) himself went to Bistrița and asked judge Ubeldus Tumels to resolve this litigiation. The document that contains the decision of the court was published in 1884, in „Familia” magazine, by the academician Atanasie Marian Marienescu, document that was extracted from the „Documente privitoare la Istoria Românilor(Documents regarding the history of Romanians) book, published by Romanian Academy, vol. I, 2nd part, pag. 112-118. Here is the content of this document (this is an approximate translation, because the document was written into a 19th century Romanian language, slightly different from the one spoken today, with words that are not used anymore):

In the year 1366, king Ludovic went to Bistrița, in Ardeal(Transylvania). A fight over the possession of a mountain forest and a fight over border between Romanians ofSâm Petru near Bistrița and the Saxons from Satul Nou(New Village) was resolved at the explicit desire of the king and based on the reconciliation in Bistrița in the 7th day of celebrating the body of Christ (Frohleichnam), a document written in Latin was composed. From this document I will translate only some parts and the part that will stand as a proof in Latin. (words of Atanasie Marian Marienescu)

{We, the judge Ubeldus Tumels, Casparos Hennel, Simon of Frank and Peter of Revel and other civil jurymen from city of Bistrița we share for the memory of everyone that didn’t took part today, that between Blacci(Rumâni, Valachii) / Romanians from Sâm Petru and the Teutons(Saxons), the newcomers from Husalseiff, that is placed in the circle of villages around Bistrița, a great disagreement was aroused, and therefore our Sérénissime king Ludovic, who came among us in Bistrița, entrusted us to resolve. The Teutons complain that the Blachii from Sâm Petru took over the forest commonly named Cusuma(Cușma), that is found between Rîpău mounain, Lesdal valley in the South,  the mountain called Reghiţe, that starts from the village of Blacci, then to the East to the Rîpăuși and Calde mountains, and then up to the North to the peak Bolcina. Count Bisticiens took the forest from the Blacci’s teritory and added to his domains. The Teutons took wood from this forest for building their village.

This is what Teutons have said, but Romanians denied: Blacci from Sâm Petru village with great sorrow said that their land, for almost 1000 years possessed by their ancestors, and most of the time, it was taken back with blood, if it will be lost, the Teutons will profit even from the orchards that are found in this forest. Besides that, Blacci also told that Teutons are willing to build their village inside their own, not on the ruins of the Solna(Jelna) village, fact that will cause them a lot of conflicts and prejudices. Regarding this disagreement, after great deliberation, we found that is rightful and fair, because this teritory, whose borders established by the Dukes of the Huns are immutable, this forest will remain in the possession of the Blacci’s village, because this is how it was until now, the land being inherited from their ancestors, as the situation showed.

The Teutons or Germans(said): We thank Romanians for this friendly effort; and then they voted for their friendship and their services. After all of these were told to our Sérénissime king, he declared that this is fair and all facts were judged rightfully. Issued in Bistrița. }

See the Romanian article ->


  1. Cornel Bîrsan – Istorie furată – cronică românească de istorie veche, editura Karuna, Bistrița, 2013, pag. 476-477 / Stolen History – Old romanian history chronicle, Karuna, Bistrița, 2013, pag. 476-477
  2. – Atanasie Marian Marienescu(schiță de portret, partea I), 29.06.2011

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